Diet for diabetics
DIET THERAPY –TYPHOID
Typhoid Fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonellae Typhi bacteria. The symptoms associated with typhoid are poor appetite, headaches, generalized aches and pains, fever, and lethargy.
The main objectives of diet therapy are:
- To maintain adequate nutrition
- To maintain water and electrolyte balance
- To provide enough proteins
Energy: In fevers the basal metabolic rate increases, so the caloric requirement needs to be increased. Restlessness also increases the energy expenditure. But initially, a patient may be able to consume only 600 – 1200 kcal/day, but this should be increased as rapidly as possible.
Protein: a high protein diet is advised. For an adult with typhoid, about 100gm or more of protein is prescribed. Protein intake should be increased with the use of foods such as milk and eggs.
Carbohydrates: A liberal intake of carbohydrates is suggested to meet the increased energy intake. The glycogen stores are replenished by a liberal intake of carbohydrates. Well cooked, easily digestible carbohydrates which are less sweet and readily absorbed by the blood stream are preferred.
Fibre: In typhoid since there is injury to the digestive tract, all forms of irritants and harsh foods should be restricted from the diet. A low fibre diet is advised.
Fats: Fats are required mainly to increase the energy intake. If diarrhoea is present, fats need to be restricted. Emulsified fats such as butter, cream and milk fat are easily digested.
Minerals: There is excessive loss of electrolytes like sodium, potassium and chloride due to increased sweating. Salty soups, broths, fruit juices and milk help compensate the loss.
Vitamins: Infection and fevers increase the requirement for vitamin A, B and C.
Fluids: In order to compensate for the losses through the sweat and also to ensure adequate volume of urine for excreting waste, a liberal intake of fluids is very essential. Daily about 2500-5000ml of fluid is necessary.
- Small meals and frequent meals advised.
- Sufficient intake of fluids and salt should be ensured.
- Diet should be bland, low fibre, soft diet and easily digestible.